Neurons with responses selective for the duration of an auditory stimulus are called duration-tuned neurons (DTNs). Temporal specificity in their spiking suggests that one function of DTNs is to encode stimulus duration; however, the efficacy of duration encoding by DTNs has yet to be investigated. Herein, we characterize the information content of individual cells and a population of DTNs from the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) by measuring the stimulus-specific information (SSI) and estimated Fisher information (FI) of spike count responses. We found that SSI was typically greatest for those stimulus durations that evoked maximum spike counts, defined as best duration (BD) stimuli, and that FI was maximal for stimulus durations off BD where sensitivity to a change in duration was greatest. Using population data, we demonstrate that a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) can accurately decode stimulus duration from evoked spike counts. We also simulated a two-alternative forced choice task by having MLE models decide whether two durations were the same or different. With this task we measured the just-noticeable difference threshold for stimulus duration and calculated the corresponding Weber fractions across the stimulus domain. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the spiking responses of DTNs from the mammalian IC contain sufficient information for the CNS to encode, decode, and discriminate behaviorally relevant auditory signal durations.
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The dietary intake of flavonoids reduces the risk of developing certain types of cancers.Anticancer and preventive effects against prostate,colorectal,breast,thyroid,lung,and ovarian cancers,Flavonoids include the following subfamilies: flavones, flavanols, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanonols, which differ in their ring substituents and extent of saturation.............................................................................................................................Silymarin, genistein, quercetin, daidzein, luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate.Their chemopreventive efficacy is mediated by inhibiting the development of new cancer cells;preventing carcinogens from reaching their activation sites; and decreasing the toxicity of certain compounds by inhibiting their metabolism.The molecular mechanisms by which flavonoids produce their anticancer and preventive effects include (1) induction of apoptosis ; (2) cell cycle arrest at G1http://orl-agios.blogspot.com/2017/06/the-preclinical-anticancer-effect-of.html Flavonoids present in foods were considered non-absorbable b...
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Exome sequencing identifies a novel missense mutation of WFS1 as the cause of non-syndromic low-frequency hearing loss in a Chinese familyPublication date: September 2017 Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 100 Author(s): Zhijie Niu, Yong Fe...
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Should we consider devolution of “head and neck” surgery from the specialties of oral and maxillofacial surgery; ear, nose, and throat surgery; and plastic surgery?
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